Abduction and related offences

Abduction and related offences refer to actions that illegally take away someone’s freedom to move, without their consent or against the will of someone responsible for them. This category of offences includes abduction, false imprisonment, and offences related to slavery and sexual servitude.


Arson is a criminal act that involves deliberately and without any valid reason setting fire to a property, resulting in damage or destruction. Additionally, it encompasses intentionally or recklessly causing a bushfire. Arson also includes other offences related to fires.

Assault and related offences

Assault and related offences refer to the use of physical force, violence or injury inflicted upon an individual or group of people in an immediate and confrontational manner. The offence includes serious assault, assault on police, emergency services or other authorized officers, as well as common assault.

Blackmail and extortion

Blackmail and extortion are illegal actions that involve demanding money, property, or other benefits from someone, and threatening to use coercive measures if the demand is not met. These coercive measures may involve revealing sensitive information about the person or using or threatening to use force or violence against them. The offences of blackmail and extortion are similar in nature, with the main difference being the specific circumstances of the case.

Breaches of order

Breaches of orders occur when someone violates the conditions of a justice order by failing to comply with the terms set out in the order. This category of offences includes breaches of family violence orders, intervention orders, bail conditions, and other types of orders.


Bribery refers to the act of offering, giving or accepting a bribe in exchange for a benefit or advantage. Specifically, this offence occurs when a bribe is given to a government official while they are exercising their official authority. The category of offences related to bribery includes bribery of officials.


Burglary, also known as break and enter, involves unlawfully entering a building or structure with the intention of committing a crime, whether the entry is forced or not. This category of offences includes aggravated burglary and non-aggravated burglary. Aggravated burglary occurs when the burglar is armed or causes harm to another person during the burglary. Non-aggravated burglary does not involve the use of a weapon or harm to another person.

Criminal incident

A criminal incident refers to an event in which one or more offences are committed, involving one or more alleged offenders and/or victims, and is recorded as having occurred at a specific location on a particular date in the LEAP database. This means that multiple offences committed during the same event, by the same people or at the same location, are documented as a single criminal incident in the LEAP database.

Cultivate or manufacture drugs

Cultivating or manufacturing drugs refers to the process of growing or producing substances that are prohibited under the legislation, such as illegal drugs. This category of offences includes cultivating drugs, manufacturing drugs, and possessing drug manufacturing equipment or precursor substances.

Dangerous or negligent acts endangering people

Dangerous or negligent acts endangering people are actions that result in actual or potential harm to oneself or others, even though they were not intended to cause harm. This category of offences includes dangerous driving, neglect or ill-treatment of people, throwing or discharging objects that endanger people, and other dangerous or negligent acts that endanger people. These actions may be the result of recklessness or negligence and can cause physical harm, injury, or even death to those involved.


Deception is when someone carries out a dishonest act or omits important information with the intention of deceiving someone else to obtain a benefit or avoid a disadvantage. This can include forgery, possessing equipment to make false documents, obtaining benefits through deception, giving false information, using deceptive business practices, professional malpractice and misrepresentation, and other types of deception.

Disorderly and offensive conduct

Disorderly and offensive conduct offences involve personal behavior that is disorderly, criminal or considered offensive to others in the community. These offences may include rioting, affray, being drunk and disorderly in public, using offensive language, and engaging in disorderly conduct. The behavior may be indicative of criminal intent, or it may simply be disruptive and offensive to those around the person engaging in it. Disorderly and offensive conduct offences are often intended to promote public safety and maintain order in the community. Those who commit these offences may face legal consequences such as fines or imprisonment.

Drug dealing and trafficking involve selling and distributing drugs or other substances that are illegal. This includes activities such as selling drugs on the street or transporting drugs across borders.

Drug dealing and trafficking

Drug dealing refers to the selling or distributing of illegal drugs, while drug trafficking involves transporting drugs across borders or in large quantities. Both activities are prohibited by law.

Drug use and possession

Drug use and possession refer to the act of consuming or having in one’s possession drugs or other substances that are illegal under the law. This includes the consumption of drugs for personal use as well as the possession of drugs with the intent to use or distribute them.

Homicide and related offences

Homicide and related offences refer to the act of killing another person either intentionally or unintentionally. This includes committing murder, attempted murder, accessory or conspiracy to murder, manslaughter, and driving causing death.

Justice procedures

Justice procedures refer to actions or inactions that can disrupt or hinder the effective administration of justice. Some examples of justice procedure offences include escaping custody, failing to appear in court when required, and resisting or hindering officers during the course of their duties.

Miscellaneous offences 

Miscellaneous offences refer to all the other offences that do not fall under the other categories. It includes a range of offences such as environmental offences, public health and safety offences, cruelty to animals, dangerous substance offences, and other miscellaneous offences.


An offence is any illegal action or failure to act that can result in punishment by the Victorian legal system. CSA statistics include offences that occurred in Victoria, were reported to Victoria Police, and were first recorded in LEAP within the specified time frame.

Offence rate

The offence rate is a measure of the frequency of criminal activity in a given population. It is calculated by taking the number of offences recorded in a specific time period and dividing it by the estimated resident population during that same period. The resulting figure is then multiplied by 100,000 to give a rate per 100,000 population.

Offences related to a family incident

Offences related to a family incident are criminal acts or omissions that have been identified by Victoria Police as being linked to a family incident.

Other drug offences

Other drug offences refer to drug-related crimes that are not classified as drug dealing and trafficking, cultivating or manufacturing drugs, or drug use and possession.

Other government regulation offences

Other government regulation offences refer to crimes that are regulated by the government but not related to driving or transport regulation. Examples of these offences include betting and gaming offences, commercial regulation offences, liquor and tobacco licensing offences, pornography and censorship offences, intellectual property offences, prostitution offences and other government regulation offences.

Property damage

Property damage refers to intentionally and unlawfully damaging, defacing, or destroying public or private property. It includes offences such as criminal damage, graffiti, and other forms of property damage.

Public nuisance offences

Public nuisance offences refer to acts that disturb public order and harmony. This includes a range of offences such as invading someone’s privacy, making hoaxes, begging, defamation or libel, improper movement on public or private space, and other acts that are considered a public nuisance.

Public security offences

Public security offences refer to acts or omissions that are considered harmful to the effective functioning of government operations aimed at maintaining government security. This includes offences such as immigration violations, sabotage, hacking, terrorism, and other related activities.

Regulatory driving offences

Regulatory driving offences are offences related to vehicles and traffic regulations, such as licensing, registration, roadworthiness, and usage. These offences include driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, speeding, parking violations, and other offences related to the operation of motor vehicles. Additionally, regulatory driving offences include offences related to bicycles.

Repeat offending

Repeat offending refers to individuals who have been involved in more than one criminal incident within a specific 12-month financial year reference period. If an individual is linked to criminal incidents across multiple financial year reference periods, they will be counted in each period separately. The number of repeat offences presented in this publication only reflect those committed within a single financial year reference period and not over a longer period of time.

Repeat victimisation

Repeat victimisation refers to individuals who have been victimized more than once within a specific 12-month financial year reference period. If a person has been victimized in multiple financial year reference periods, they will be counted in each period. Therefore, the repeat victimisation counts in this publication only show repeat victimisation within a 12-month period, and not over a longer period of time


Robbery is when someone takes someone else’s property without permission, with the intention of keeping it, while using or threatening to use immediate force or violence. If the use or threat of force or violence is particularly serious, it’s called aggravated robbery, while non-aggravated robbery refers to all other cases of robbery.

Sexual offences

Sexual offences refer to any sexual act that is carried out without the consent of another person or where consent cannot be given due to age or incapacity. This includes rape, indecent assault, incest, sexual offences against children, and other similar acts.

Stalking, harassment, and threatening behavior

Stalking, harassment, and threatening behavior refer to actions that are intended to harm a person either physically or mentally, or cause them to fear for their safety through repeated and unreasonable conduct. This can include actions that are meant to harass, threaten, or invade a person’s privacy. Examples of these offences include stalking, harassment, and private nuisance, and threatening behavior.


Theft is when someone takes something that doesn’t belong to them without permission and with the intention to keep it permanently or temporarily. This does not involve using force, threats, coercion, or deception.

Examples of theft include stealing a car, taking something from a parked car, shoplifting, stealing a bike, buying or selling stolen items, not paying for public transportation, and other similar acts.

Transport regulation offences

Transport regulation offences refer to breaking laws and regulations related to transportation. This includes breaking rules for public transportation, aviation, maritime, pedestrian safety, and other transport-related laws.

Unincorporated Victoria

Unincorporated Victoria refers to areas within the state of Victoria that are not governed by a local government authority or council (79 LGAs). These areas include small islands administered by the state and ski resorts governed by management boards.

Weapons and explosives offences

Weapons and explosives offences refer to illegal activities involving prohibited or regulated weapons and explosives. This includes crimes related to firearms, prohibited and controlled weapons, and explosives.

Youth offender

A youth offender is someone who has been linked to a recorded offence in LEAP (Law Enforcement Assistance Program) and was between the age of 10 and 17 years at the time the offence was committed.